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Don’t Scrape Magnet Wire, Do This Instead | Hackaday

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[Tom] It's not like a breadboard. He prefers to use perforated plates to connect the prototypes and use enameled wire paint to weld point-to-point. This may be troublesome for some people, but [Tom] proposed

, The biggest secret is how to manage stripping all magnet wires.

Magnet wire is a thin solid conductor with a transparent enamel coating. The enamel acts as an electrical insulator. The usual way to peel off the enamel and expose the bright copper underneath is to scrape it off, but it can be tiring when making a lot of connections. [Tom] tends to "boil" with a lump of molten solder on the tip of the soldering iron.

First melt a small amount of solder on the soldering iron, then push the tip of the magnet wire into the molten solder for a short distance, and then hold it for a while. During this process, bubbles will emerge from the enamel and the solder will solder copper underneath. The trick is to use new solder and clean the tip of the soldering iron between applications. You can see him giving a demonstration at around 1:00 in the video embedded below.

After the end of the magnet wire is tin-plated, it can be soldered as needed. Magnet wire can bend well and maintain its shape well, so it is not very difficult to wire it and cut to size. [Tom] also suggested a good hands-free PCB holder, and pointed out that 0603 size SMT resistors are very suitable between the 0.1 inch pads of the perforated board.

Perfboard (and veroboard) have been a backup for prototyping for a long time, but are still trying to improve them, usually through

, But you can see [Tom] in the video below demonstrating how to use magnet wire on a plain old perforated board.

You can also use a match or a lighter to burn the enamel. Remember to wipe the burnt coating with a paper towel.

This process will leave copper oxide, which is very detrimental to welding.

The use of solder will leave beautiful tinned ends. However, it is only used with "hot peelable" enamel

This is why flux is used :)

This is how I was first taught to do it.

But I don't do this anymore.

I have never liked this process. Maybe I used the wrong magent line? It is difficult to remove all enamel, burned enamel residue and oxidation. And the more you try to do this, the better the copper you wipe off!

There is a special enameled wire paint that can burn clean at the temperature of the soldering iron. Just install it and you are ready to go!

I once watched a video in which someone hollowed out an old soldering iron tip and used it as a super miniature tin pot only for tinning these wires. If I find myself welding a lot of magnet wires again, that is what I will do.

Oh, and the copper-colored magnet wire? You must be a real mouth to use these things! It is difficult to judge the shedding of enamel!

still…. For the perforated board prototype, even if we assume that the enamel insulation layer is not easy to wear and may be better than the plastic insulator, it will eventually wear out. The problem is that unlike plastic insulators, you can easily see where the insulating layer has worn out, but it is difficult to detect undesired enamel removal by simple appearance. It is not that we can avoid the wear of the enamel, especially when welding the joint of one wire near another wire.

But in other words, will the transformer also age? I have many old ones that are good. Of course, maybe later production methods are not so durable, but it has not been long enough to prove this.

The windings of the transformer (and electromagnet) are not affected by the orthogonal configuration, handling and movement of the exposed wires at the bottom of the circuit board. This idea seems great in theory, but Murphy's Law says that two crossing wires will wear out at the time/place you need it most.

On the other hand, it is well known that coatings on magnet wires in automobile coils, starters, etc. will be damaged by heat and vibration over time. I would never use it on a circuit board that is expected to withstand slightly harsh environments. I think this is okay for the prototype, although it doesn't really see how convenient it is for wires that have to be melted and tinned to just strip the insulated wires and paste them on the breadboard.

But this is only effective if you have low temperature or self-fluxing enameled copper wire. Moreover, if you specifically purchased this product, then you must already know that it is what you own. Am i missing something? Oh, what do you call tinned copper wire in the Magnetwire zone?

Wire-wound wires or ordinary insulated single-core wires are suitable for this technology. Usually, the insulation layer can be melted at a distance of 3 or 4 mm from the end, and then grab the end with your fingers to pull it apart.

I recently had to connect multiple RGB LEDs in a chain/matrix. To save time, I only used the wires in the LAN cable, wound them around each lead of the LED, then melted the insulation and soldered directly. It's smelly, but like a charm...

please do not?

The trick is not to use your own soldering iron to melt the plastic insulation, but self-fluxing enameled wire can do it.

However, there are some caveats:

– Many such self-fusing wires require a higher soldering iron temperature (around 400-430 C) to actually burn the enamel. For things like LEDs, especially SMD, this is very unhealthy.

– Many of these wires release highly toxic fumes – for example, polyurethane-based enamels release substances such as isocyanates. You definitely don't want to inhale a lot of flue gas during welding, you must have a good fume exhaust system (not just a fan).

I am using a product from

And there are indeed the above two problems.

Let's not do that. Melting PVC is very unhealthy.

I held my breath. And I don’t think that the 1-3mm of partially melted insulation on each connector will kill me. Of course, it is best to use a smoke exhaust device or a protective device...

According to the general situation of RoHS and EU, the use of leaded solder is very unhealthy. But I know that at least one person has fixed radio and television for more than 50 years and has not died of lead poisoning. And most older devices use phenol-based PCB...

A friend of mine BTW had to dispose of 60 liters of old transformer oil made of PCBs. He has an old RTG head full of stuff. You don’t even know how difficult it is to get rid of these things safely if you are a unique hobby...

Burning magnet wire insulation may not be very healthy either. Certain types of materials release isocyanate compounds when heated. Although definitely not as bad as PVC...

I always want to know why the beautiful wire winding art disappeared

I still do. Sockets are expensive; usually more expensive than chips. A few years ago, I still got some rewards from some remaining boards. I can sit and watch TV and wrap the wires with a netlist or datasheet. Or at least I can before I get a new kitten.

PCBs are cheap and easy to assemble at home, and interesting chips in DIP have become scarce.

Yes, I have always heard that we have to buy DIP. It is written in the famous book "The Art of DIL"

Another reason for the cost is that these sockets are very bulky.

Today, most electronic products are SMT. Many chips are no longer provided in DIP packages.

With welding technology, you can pour almost everything together.

Funny, I thought everyone did that!

After watching the video, some other tips:

Use a terminal pen!

A piece of plastic is not cheap, but it is worth listening to. You can use a 0.5mm mechanical pencil to cut off one of them, but the metal part will scratch the insulating layer. After finding the first short and deep hole in a bundle of wires, you can use the appropriate tool.

Do it with a wiring pen like in the video, just like crimping with a crimping tool in a leatherworker. You will never look back.

Next tip:

In fact, you can simply wrap the wire tightly around the leg of the through-hole component, and then solder the leg to the perforated board. Easy to use wiring pen! When welding, the enameled wire paint will burn off.

(At least in theory. For me, this has never been super reliable, so I use a soldering iron to burn paint like in the video)



Not long ago, I wrote about how to use the Verowire pen for Instructables.

Nice article, thanks for sharing!

And: well done on your perf board :)

TL; DR: The warning in the last paragraph about the use of magnet wires in circuits with high-speed signals.

In different centuries, when I built my first computer, although I did not want to spend that kind of money, I still used blue perforated boards and point-to-point wiring, and used "winding" . The cost of the wire-wound socket (usually about 4 times the cost of the chip, the lowest). This is because it is a small gauge (30 AWG or 0.28mm) solid wire that is easily available and easy to strip. It works well, except that if the wire you solder passes over another wire that is close to your soldering location, it is very likely that the insulation will melt and the wires will short-circuit together-Kynar insulation is not particularly strong in terms of heat resistance.

I guess it's still called "wire-wrapped wire", even if no one has wrapped anything in about forty years (except maybe the phone person, but... who?)

In any case, when I ran out of wires, I was close to completing the first phase of the project. Therefore, I decided to use 28 AWG magnet wire because I have some on hand and only the interconnection between the CPU and the video board and the memory board can be used.

As long as the two boards are placed side by side on the table, everything is normal, with only a few minor issues (two defective 2102 SRAM chips, almost no other errors). Yes, this is the excitement when I was young, because I just used my skills and the somewhat confusing data tables in the early MPU to build my own computer! However, when I folded the board to its final position, I found a bunch of incorrect pixels on the picture tube. I just need to say "picture tube" because this is a phrase I haven't used for a long time. It is not a "CRT"; the "picture tube" is part of the 5-inch portable TV I purchased, specifically for use as a computer monitor.

Reopening the circuit board for troubleshooting, the problem disappeared, so while the system was running, I folded the circuit board back and watched the random pixels come back. All that moves are interconnect lines. Therefore, I move the wires individually, and moving only these enameled wires may make the problem better or worse. When I bought more winding wires and replaced the interconnect wires, the problem disappeared.

My conclusion at the time was (the enamel insulation is too thin and there is obvious capacitive coupling between the wires) (there was no reason to modify this at the time). This is the warning. Wires are not just wires; they are an integral part. Since then, I have successfully used magnet wires, but always avoid laying signal wires in parallel over any large distances.

Your connection is bad or shorted

And your diagnosis is based on...

There are still many people in our factory. They are the people who make "nails" test fixtures that can hold down the PCB with a vacuum.

They say that quick replacement can easily adapt to PCB replacement and repair errors. Since the number of these nail beds is very limited, it is not worth making PCBs.

The main problem with magnet wire is that you cannot use pliers or tweezers to handle the wire. Because you can be sure that you will scrape some of the enamel, especially if the pliers or tweezers are metal.

I don't know if you are trying to imply that this may be the reason for my project failure, but it is not the case. I explored this possibility, and the insulation was not damaged.

"I think it's still called "wire wrap", even though no one has wrapped anything in about forty years (except maybe the phone person, but who is it?)"

I did some (a lot of discrete points) last week. Look at my project. It is expensive and it is not easy to find sockets, but it is easy to fix errors. Of course, most of my projects are pseudo-retro.

Winding wire and magnet wire are completely different things.

Yes, my bet is short. The enamel insulation layer is very thin and can be easily scratched. The only problem with capacitive coupling is the high Z input.

And I bet the OP knows his game (think about what he describes), and has considered and rejected this possibility through experiments.

I am glad that people are willing to make a second guess about my diagnosis, but there is no problem with the insulation. It does not matter where the wires are contacted, and there is no other evidence of insulation failure. I spent a lot of time troubleshooting all other problems. According to the Sherlock Holmes method, the inevitable conclusion is that electromagnetic wires are not suitable for this. I am sharing this knowledge with others who may be in the same trouble, but of course everyone can ignore my conclusions and suggestions. Knock yourself..

Your arrogance is breathtaking. There is no sufficient basis. I know BBJim in other discussions and know that he is very knowledgeable. Of course, he is knowledgeable enough to make his assessment of his project accurate.

On the other hand, the statement that Cap coupling is only related to high-Z inputs is simply not accurate. I want to know whether you have considered the problem space correctly. The physical size of the project is large, so there may be a longer signal path. This is a digital design, and it may also have a fairly high frequency signal and a fairly sharp edge. It should also be noted that a basic concept is that any consideration of circuits based on lumped elements of capacitance and/or inductance is an approximation, and the only accurate analysis is transmission line analysis. Therefore, a combination of all these factors will show that parallel conductors act as coupled transmission lines, and the signals they carry may be synchronized and may have considerable timing constraints.

I have already seen this type of problem in my design. In this design, the project engineer makes the automatic router do the worst, and the generated signal varies between "Manhattan length" and changes from a single location. The length from one bit to another is approximately twice. bus. In that case, the problem is mainly the timing margin. In this case, for BBJim, if the signals in adjacent wires change in the opposite direction, the same may apply.

It is not necessary to use a high-Z node network to produce this effect. These are transmission lines and therefore have the same impedance as the transmitter and receiver. The effect described by BBJim is very reasonable. Without warning, your comment is unlikely to be that Cap coupling is incorrect, and it is unlikely to apply in this case anyway.

My only comment on BBJim is: If you don’t like the Tx line method, is it inductive coupling or a combination of Cap and inductive coupling? ;-) (I'm sure you know where I am going.)

Oh, by the way, by the way, how many of you would think that enamel insulation is easily damaged? I once had a terrible time trying to peel off the enamel! Have I ever been happy to find polyurethane magnet wire? :-)

Hi Stephen, thank you for your insight on this.

I like to tell a story, but the main purpose of my first comment is to warn people about the dangers of using wires with very thin insulation in point-to-point wiring. If people want to ignore my warning, I have no problem with it. However, when they cause harm to others by canceling my warning with "must be shorted", I do encounter problems, which implies that other people have no problem using enameled wire in point-to-point wiring, just be careful not to cut the wire .

Now, it was about 40 years ago, so I don't have any documentation. However, I will provide enough information for the case so that people can make their own decisions about whether to consider my warning.

First, the system uses Intel 2102A SRAM as the video RAM, and provides 74LS93 counters for the address and data lines through the 74LS157 2 input multiplexer. Therefore, this involves a low-impedance driver that provides a high-impedance input to the address and data lines when writing to the memory. For reading, the data line driven by the SRAM chip is a low-impedance drive with a medium-impedance LSTTL input. The MPU and video counter circuit are located on a performance board measuring approximately 10 inches x 4.5 inches, and the memory array (main memory and video memory) are located on a separate board of the same size. They are mounted on hinges along the long side of the board, so they open like a restaurant menu. All logic is on the MPU/logic board, including multiplexers. Only the SRAM chip itself is on the memory board.

When I ran out of Kynar lines, the address was fully connected; the only signal wired with enameled wire was the data line between the data multiplexer and the data line of the SRAM chip.

Symptoms are shown as video "noise", that is, pixels with unstable state will intermittently display white when they should be black, and vice versa. "Intermittent" means that pixels change at a higher rate, but at a random rate. The design of this system is to load the video storage data into the shift register in parallel in the form of 8-bit words (do not remember the type, but it is a 74LS series chip), and this bit maps these bits to the horizontal position. screen. Therefore, I can see where the bad pixel is located and which data bit is responsible.

What I have observed is that there are multiple dislocations. As long as I move the interconnection line, I can influence which dislocation and the severity of the error. My recollection is that most or all drill bits can show errors by moving different wires. These errors do not show reliable error values ​​that can be caused by a direct line-to-line short circuit. The error is displayed as a "ghost" image, that is, the image is not as stable as expected. The error seems to be a read-only error-after separating the wires, the error disappears, and only the correct data is retained, even if new data is written when the error is seen on the screen.

For a short time, I operated the system without unfolding the circuit board, which made the interconnected wires have no other problems with each other and with other wires. After replacing the enameled wire with Kynar insulated wire, the problem disappeared and did not recover in the three or four years I used the system. I have to replace two of the 2102A chips at some point in the process; I am not sure if this is due to actual chip failure or time constraints in the system. In both cases, the failure mode is the pixel's "always on" column, indicating that a stuck position has occurred. By replacing the chip responsible for this bit (these chips are 1024×1 chips), I was able to make the symptoms disappear, so I regarded it as a "solved problem". Since this is my own hobby system, not a prototype of a production computer, I don't have to worry about finding the root cause.

The length of the interconnection line ranges from 6 to 12 inches, and the data is multiplexed between the MPU bus and the video counter, and switched at a rate of approximately 2 MHz. I don't know the exact rise/fall times, but they should be in the range of 10-50 ns, but I didn't have any way to measure them at the time. Similarly, the influence on the transmission line is dominant, which is too slow, which is why I concluded that this is a lumped capacitance problem. Similarly, the difference in inductance between a 9-inch fairly straight 28 AWG magnet wire and a 30 AWG wound wire is also insignificant, so I believe the fact that the problem can be solved by replacing the wire eliminates this as an inductance problem.

Hope this is sufficient supplementary information so that people who read my previous comments can determine for themselves whether this is a distributed capacitor problem, or "in short".

Wow, I remembered that. Although it is good for me. A delay of several ns is required for the first character to be displayed on crt. Twist the two pieces together to make a capacitor, and it works.

Kynar (winding) dielectric constant ~6.4

Dielectric constant of Formvar (magnet enamel) ~7.4

I put these numbers into the online EMI calculator. The radius of 30awg is 0.005 inches. Typical nominal insulation thickness for this specification; Kynar is 0.004 inches for coatings and 0.0006 inches for enamel coatings.

The 3-inch parallel 30awg Kynar capacitor with a center distance of 0.018 inches is 1.189e-11 F or 12pF

3 "Parallel 30awg Formvar, center distance is 0.0112", capacitance is 3.229e-11 F or 32pF

They are the worst-case scenario, assuming that two parallel lines are in full contact over their entire length. At 1MHz, the impedance of 32 pF is 5kOhm. This is the worst-case drain current of 1mA. TTL output can provide 16mA current.

Your warning about handling wires is effective, especially in the modern era when CPUs are running at radio frequencies, but I think your failure is more likely to be caused by dry or shorted connectors than capacitive coupling. I just don't believe that pF capacitors will cause these problems with TTL in single-digit MHz.

I don't have anything to measure, but I think the thickness value you set for Kynar is far from an order of magnitude or more. The total diameter of the insulating layer is approximately the same as the wire IIRC.

Oops-my fault. I am reading that one decimal place. However, I still question your number: due to the linear relationship between the plate spacing and the capacitance, if the ratio of the insulation thickness is about 7:1, then the ratio of the capacitance should also be 7:1. Don't know how to get the ratio of 2.5:1. Maybe this is your "center to center" measurement, I don't know. If the wires are in contact, the spacing between the conductor surfaces (which is important for capacitance) is equal to two insulation thicknesses. Center-to-center is meaningless here.

If you don't believe me, please check the equation of two parallel lines. The capacitance is proportional to L/arcosh (D/2r), where D is center to center. 2.5:1 is correct.

This equation assumes a consistent dielectric constant, especially for bare wires in the air, which is not the case here – in this case, the dielectric constant of the contact point is much higher than elsewhere, so the formula you use is not Be applicable. In this case, it is closer to the plate capacitor.

I don't know why you are unwilling to accept my suggestions for disconnection and disconnection, but I have done a lot.

If you look at the 8051 uC data sheet a few years ago, especially the variant produced by Philips et al., its operating frequency exceeds the 16MHz limit (please note that the internal clock frequency is internally divided by 12, the system frequency of the CPU), even though At these very moderate frequencies, there are timing constraints between related signals (especially if my memory is correct), and the output timing is invalid for the program memory and bus drive enable. The next bus cycle of the CPU is in units of one billionth of a second. Therefore, a moderate clock frequency is not the only indicator to consider. Even when we use cycle time, timing problems may occur within a few ns.

First, this is a 2 MHz signal, and second, the frequency has no meaning. In order for the impedance to be correct, what you need to know is the highest frequency COMPONENT of the signal. Like I said, I don't know what the rise or fall time is, but at 10 ns, at least 30 MHz will have a large component.

Sorry-it is for ID.

I agree with you, although winding silk has a similar effect. I have done a lot of winding. I work in a place where I make a prototype and a prototype. Sometimes people ask why the "spaghetti" is not tied together. Crosstalk is becoming more and more problematic. By the way, the industrial wire packing machine uses 26ga wire, we have 120V and pneumatic wire packing gun. Pneumatic is better. We also used suitable sockets and placed these small shields on the back, where you can write the chip number with a sharpener and print out the pin number. We have made a lot of complicated boards. We first need to figure out the layout, then implant the parts, and then calculate the node list, so in the end it is just U27-4 to U11-13, etc.

As far as your parasite is concerned, one of us has an office on the 4th floor, and someone has laid shielded cables from the computer to the basement of his terminal. When I got there, he could only use the terminal at 300 baud. You can almost type as fast. Not so, but slowly. I did the obvious thing, reconfigured the port to 9600, but did nothing. I can make 1200 work a little bit. I thought about it for a while, then looked at the device, and the person who wired it did what you think was right, and he grounded the shield. I thought about it for a while, it looked like a hat, and for entertainment purposes, the shield was not grounded. of I think many people have made this mistake. When using RS232, the voltage is higher and the polarity is reversed, so there is almost no immunity to noise, but it is limited to 45ma, so it is sensitive to longer-time capacitance. I suspect that it would be better to use unshielded cables for a long time, but this is the longest I have to do. We had a longer run in another location, but we used a short-distance transport model.

Bring back memories. I have a customer who is trying to run an HP pen plotter about 50 meters away from his computer. It seems to work, but it is very slow. It will draw a line, wait a few seconds, and then draw the next line. To make a long story short, the cable plugged into the plotter only connects Tx, Rx and ground, and the cable connects to the rest of the extension. This extension has connected all wires. This causes the CTS pin to receive enough noise, causing the computer to stop between each character.

In 1985, I attended a data communication course at Exeter University. They mentioned that some campus network connections use a 3-core UK power cord for linking, and "through some connections, we found that only 2-core The cable can get out of the predicament. The core; we assume that the power cord is grounded.

Exhaust smoke!

do it!

You are burning plastic on your face and the evaporated lead is of no avail.

Forget these fans of this foot with coal foam. If you cannot ventilate outside, you can build a decent person yourself using a real activated coal filter. When you buy activated coal from an aquarium supplier, it is cheap.



I don't think the temperature of the soldering iron is enough to vaporize the lead

If you want to evaporate lead, you'd better put away the blowtorch and use a normal soldering iron. The temperature of the soldering iron cannot reach the temperature required to vaporize the lead.

For professional use: unshakable, loud sound, must be exhausted.

For occasional DIY: Well...Of course, this is always a good idea, but it's actually not a big deal. But please don't believe me, please accept some figures and arguments:

The toxic compound released when burning enamel is toluene diisocyanate [1] (TDI). The wire diameter is 0.2mm and the insulation thickness is 5um [1]. Suppose you burn 2mm, the insulation is 100% TDI, and the TDI density is 1.214g/cm3 [2]. This gives ((0.1e-3 + 5e-6)^ 2 – 0.1e-3 ^ 2) * pi * 2e-3 * 1214 = ~8ng TDI per connection.

If you look at a typical smoke column while welding, the height of the smoke column may be 20cm high and 1cm in diameter, or the amount of smoke is about 0.5e-2 ^ 2 * pi * 20e-2 = ~15ml.

The concentration of TDI in the smoke is 8ng/15ml = ~0.5 mg/m3

The OSHA limit of TDI is 0.14mg/m3 [2], so 0.5mg/m3 is approximately 3.5 times the allowable limit.

This means: do not breathe fumes! However, even if you inhale it, you will not die. The LC50 of TDI is 610mg/m3, which is a thousand times higher [2].

If you directly dilute the smoke at 1000 connections in 1m3 of air in the workplace, the final result is 8ug/m3, which is 6% of the OSHA limit.

Having said that, TDI is a (suspected) carcinogen, so in principle, avoid occupational exposure.



LC50 is not a real problem, it is a hypersensitivity reaction, which can develop into isocyanate compounds generated by thermal degradation of polyurethane, and then within a few hours after exposure, it will cause hypersensitivity reactions and endanger life. Any thermal processing involving polyurethane can cause this problem, for example, welding through sealant, burning PU foam, hot wire cutting foam, laser cutting foam or using PU paint to weld and grind car panels. There is some evidence that hypersensitivity reactions may also be caused by skin exposure, not just inhaled smoke.


For a normal DIY scene, holding your breath and smelling smoke means that the OSHA limit level in the air of your workshop has fallen below the level. I agree that you don't want to do this regularly (ie professionally). But for very occasional DIY cases, it's just difficult for me to regard a life-threatening asthma attack as a significant increase in life-threatening danger over all other dangers.

I don't want to be cunning, but to be educated: do you have more details (preferably numbers) about the actual risks of rarity and low exposure?

Only some people are prone to hypersensitivity reactions. Often have a history of asthma.

If allergies are to occur within a year or so, frequent exposure usually causes allergies.

Once a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, it is considered that RPE is insufficient to protect such individuals from hypersensitivity reactions, and the occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions may be far below the maximum allowable exposure limit. Just remove these people from the environment where they may be further exposed.

There is a public case report in which a contractor used a solder can at home to develop an occupational asthma tinned wire for an employer. I had to dig to find it. Most of the literature on welding and asthma is related to gum lungs related to rosin flux.

The nature of the development of hypersensitivity reactions in jobs involving isocyanate exposure is why regulatory agencies usually require annual spirometry as part of a workplace health monitoring program, regardless of the measured isocyanate levels in the air or the effectiveness of the local exhaust ventilation system. How about sex.

what. Children these days and their interesting misunderstandings. Solder fumes are not lead. Lead will not evaporate at soldering temperature. The clues are all in the puddles glued to your board, and you certainly won't breathe. Solder fumes only burn rosin. It's basically burning pine tar. No smoke is good for you, but it is tantamount to inhaling lead!

Now, the core of lead-free solder is chemical soup.

European and California laws that work through market forces also apply to the rest of the world. These laws did not protect factory workers stuffed with boards. They protect people who drink groundwater near the landfill where you send toys every few months after the new luster appears.

I will agree with you. That is by no means a good idea.

This is why I want to keep the 1 pound Kester 63/37 solder spool. It's great to use with eutectic and how slow I go by, which is probably safer than shit in lead-free solder.

I was teaching my children how to use the electronic FM radio kit for soldering, which came with a small tube of lead-free solder. He wants to use it because it is small and comes with the kit. He walked halfway before it was misplaced, and when he switched to a 63/37 lead, he was surprised how easy it was to use it. He was 8 years old and he noticed that it was much easier to work with.

Of course, lead will evaporate at the soldering temperature. It will not boil, but some of it will evaporate. Water will also evaporate at a temperature lower than boiling, and all liquid substances will also evaporate. The boiling flux will also transport some lead particles in the air.

Well, I have always had a problem, that is to burn the plastic, leaving a black greasy paste, which will prevent tinning, and even requires more severe scratching to get wet than when the plastic was first scraped...

That may be because of electromagnetic wires! = Wiring. At least not all magnet wires are suitable, so ymmv...

The enameled wire used for printed circuit board wiring (for example, the brand is Verowire, but there are other brands) is self-fusing and can avoid the problems you describe.

Using an open flame will not only melt plastic or enamel, but also oxidize copper. This is why it will not tin.

Another technique for stripping the enamel coating I learned a long time ago is to place magnet wires (or bundles of magnet wires, such as earphone wires) on an aspirin pill and heat it with a soldering iron. The heat in the pill and the chemicals melt away the enamel layer. After that, the solder will stick to the copper. This is particularly effective for headphone cables or tuning coils of AM radios. Don't breathe the smoke from burning aspirin. It smells bad.

Salicylic acid as a flux? Great technique, must be remembered!

There is very little aspirin in aspirin tablets. Tablets are mainly composed of fillers (such as silicon dioxide), pigments (such as titanium dioxide), lubricants (such as ethylene glycol), and binders.

It may not give you a headache! Or if you really don’t know :-)

Interesting idea. Makes me wonder how it was discovered. How many random experiments will people conduct! ? What kind of crazy things will people try? Interesting and confusing time and time again.

So far, the best prototyping is done by elm-chan.

I recommend checking all his projects.

He posted a small tutorial:

One thing to remember is that many enamels used to coat these wires will corrode the soldering iron tip. What is produced on the iron tip will be directly eaten through it. There is no way to get rid of the standard technique of cleaning the soldering iron tip.

If you want to do this, the easiest way to deal with it is to get some cheap tips/cheap spare irons. I also have a second soldering iron, the tip of the soldering iron is very thick, which makes this kind of thing very quick and easy.

Enameled wire was invented in the millennium.


Correct? Everything that is old is new. My favorite is "Cohabitation Space". You mean an apartment with roommates?

The term "space" reminds me of 3D. In my opinion, the apartment is 2D and you occupy the floor. 12m^2 is the occupied 12m^2.

But the "cohabitation space"... sounds really great! 30m^3 is much larger than 12m^2!


It sounds so good! 30mm^3 is much larger than 12mm^2!

This sentence will not be an invention of "millennials" but an invention of (real estate) real estate agents. They have been trying to modify the frustrating living conditions with comfortable euphemisms.

"Timeshare"-4D ownership (TM to be determined)

Sounds like an Apple product, TBH

I have learned this technique through this site:

And used it on my DIY FPGA development board:

People don't own tin cans anymore, so you can dip them to speed up the cleaning of the enamel.

Has anyone tried it with a solder pot? You can provide sufficient solder depth for the required bare wire length.

When I graduated from a breadboard to a more "permanent" prototype, the first thing I learned was that no matter how proficient your technique is, once you get it, the point-to-point wiring on the perforated board will always suck, just like rubbish. . About a dozen components. I can still do a quick test, but after that, CAD came out. If I absolutely need the board of directors, I will be tempted, and then plunge myself into the pain of the Perf board again.

Well, over the years, I have graduated from perfboard to veroboard to Stripboard. Better, but far from enough. If you look at the ham radio homemade crowd, they will do some great things with Manhattan-style buildings.

Although I have completed this kind of work, I am currently using KiCAD and FlatCAM for research. I have had some success with chemical etching at home, but I hate this mess, but it has never been as successful as expected.

Instead of using magnet wire, I use 30 awg winding wire for point-to-point welding. Easy to peel off. For the power cord, I use 22 awg cable. To make the bus bar, I removed all insulation and solder from every point on the path.

30awg is too thick for the prototype data bus, and the wires interfere with each other and quickly become unmanageable. Compared to what is needed to transmit the signal, this wire is like a jumper wire. It is best to use 38 or 40 awg magnet wire with tools. For modern microcontrollers, you can use 30 awg of power. Check the elm-chan link above to see how the master works.

Most solders used in electronic products hardly dissolve copper. In fact, 40 AWG or thinner wires will be eaten quickly, which makes soldering and removing the paint with a soldering iron difficult.

I use kynar to do similar things. Put a little solder on the soldering iron to melt the insulating layer and fix it. Do it right, it can be very simple: solder point a. Stretch to point b. Solder it down and cut it off. Obviously, this is for low-power applications. Magnet wires are useful for higher power things.

4-0 (0000) steel wool is also available. fast and convenient.

Or just a stamp worth sandpaper. 250 grit or finer.

If the IDK is too mysterious, or obviously you fold it up, or just twist it back and forth on the wire, it's fine.

I have been using #30 Kynar (never use PVC) insulated wrap wire for prototyping.

The soldering iron can easily melt the insulation in the correct position without deforming the tip or generating toxic fumes.

The wire has been tinned and the welding effect is very good. Oxidation of the wires is by no means a problem.

I was once faced with the task of stripping strands of enameled wire thinner than a baby's hair. It is similar to the wires in a pair of Apple wired earbuds. The individual thread is very thin and can be passed through sandpaper or steel wool because the thread will break. I found that the most suitable technique for peeling tooth enamel is to immerse the tip in a mixture of molten salt and lye. The technique is documented here:

I bought a small crucible on Amazon and put the salt/lye mixture on the stove in the kitchen to heat it with tweezers. This process works like a dream. Simply immerse the end of the enameled wire in the molten mixture and the enameled foam can be removed in a very satisfactory manner. After washing the end of the wire with water, only the beautiful bare copper wire is left.

Of course, it goes without saying that the mixture is very corrosive and you should be careful


cool! Never heard of it.

I used a homemade steel wire pen with a spool and tiny steel tube for a long time. My only expense is a roll of 28 or 30 awg of green low temperature enameled enamel wire. It works very well and there is no problem with the short circuit between the wires. Although the wiring looks messy, the wiring harness is much smaller and the welding speed is faster. I did not pre-paint the tin, just put the wire on the joint and heat it with a continuous wire (the iron is fixed higher than usual). After soldering a bunch of wires, use a sharp Xacto knife to cut off the middle part.

The fastest way to strip the enameled wire is a cigarette lighter. The size of the knife or sandpaper exceeds 1mm. Sometimes it needs to be cleaned up with some dry fine gravel, but this is definitely fast. Just remember to be fast when you blow up good things: D

I am not a prototype maker of electromagnetic coils. It is difficult to know at a glance whether the insulating layer on the insulating layer is properly stripped, and it is also difficult to judge whether the wire is soldered correctly. It is usually difficult to make solder stick to it.

The jumper material I usually use is 30 AWG PTFE insulated wire. It is still possible to strip smaller specifications of PTFE wires with mechanical wire strippers (thicker things require hot wire strippers.) PTFE insulation material can also better handle heat, so the insulation material will not peel off during soldering.

Disgusting! I prefer to use emery cloth or emery cloth board. I think if I have a lot to do, I might take out an old laptop and make it all disgusting, but use a soldering iron and a ball of lead to strip the plastic enameled wire insulation from most modern wires. Soldering (IMHO) will make your soldering iron tip really sick. You can cut the plastic in the soldering iron room. In fact, I made some U-shaped openings in the battery box of the LED headlamp not long ago so that I can pass the wires through some D units on the belt clip, which will be all day long Shine, not just for hours. I also used one of the old fixed temperature 120V irons that I didn't care too much about. I tend to like very clean tips.

The magnet wire in the tin pot may have been tinned for 100 years?

Someone may have taken it at this point, but if it is actually an enameled enamel wire, no soldering iron will melt the insulation. Enameled wire is now quite rare. Now polyurethane is used instead of enamel. Polyurethane can be used as described herein, and I use it for exactly the same purpose as described herein.

I have heard of various methods of peeling tooth enamel, but I have no luck with any of them except mechanical methods by scraping or mechanical removal in some way. If you only increase the temperature of the iron and make sure that there is an active flux in the molten solder, the polyurethane can be easily peeled off, so you only need bare copper (at the cutting end) to contact the molten solder and heat it under the heat insulation layer. Look! :-)

Someone once told me that polyurethane acts as a flux. This is the explanation of its trade name "solderite" (spelling optional), but I'm sure anyone who uses it will agree that it makes a very bad "flux" ".

None of your sandpaper freaks have grasped the point.

How do you polish enough in the middle of the wire to connect to the component pins?

Using self-fuse and distribution pen, you can wire all the nets, and then only solder the drill bits that do not need to be soldered.

I really thought it was common sense. In other words, this is the method I learned. Stretching to a new joint is as easy as using the right tip (bevel or hook), good flux and "scratching". Once you master it, you hardly need to cut the enameled wire.

This is not just common sense, but product function.

I somehow missed this topic.

I have used this technique for many years, and although it is time-consuming, it works well.

"Enamel" is a strange name (although it has been glued for a long time), it is not "Enamel", it seems common to have two layers of varnish, polyester and polyurethane. Enamel may be too brittle to be used for this purpose.

Some tips:

@ 01:10, you will find that the wires are not well wetted. Because the lacquer isolates the copper, and the copper conducts heat into the wire, it takes some time to reach the soldering temperature. Starting from the top of the wire, this problem can be partially remedied. The cut end of the wire is not painted, but bare copper, so no paint will hinder heat transfer. The cross-section of the wire is also easy to wet because it is pure copper and wets at a lower temperature (and therefore faster) because the melting temperature of solder is lower than that of paint. Once the cross-section of the wire is wetted, the heat transfer increases greatly, thereby increasing the speed.

Hot soldering irons are very helpful and often even mandatory. I often use 400 degrees Celsius or increase it to a maximum of 450 degrees Celsius.

It is also convenient to equip with 2 soldering irons.

You can use a soldering iron at high temperatures and only use it for burning paint. Another possibility is a lower temperature, which is only used to solder wires to the board.

He is holding the wire with the "third hand". These things are of poor quality and are not needed at all.

It is much easier to install an easy-to-operate soldering iron tip holder on the soldering iron stand without removing the soldering iron from the base. In this way, you can hold the wire with one hand and the solder with the other.

Thinner wires are usually easier. I use wires with a diameter of 0.2mm at most, which can handle a few hundred milliamps of current.

You can use pliers or tweezers to easily manipulate the wires, but make sure that there are no sharp edges. Sometimes your tool will be slightly cut, which may leave sharp burrs. Check them with your fingers and remove them with some sandpaper or sharpening stones.

The latest technology I am trying is as follows:

1). Place the DIP socket on the matrix board and mark its position.

2). Remove the DIP socket.

3). Pass the pre-cut wire through the hole. (From the "Component" side).

4). Put it back into the DIP socket.

5). Wrap the wire around the pins of the DIP socket one or two times.

6). Cut the end of the wire.

7). Solder all connections.

It seems to work much faster, but I haven't used it enough to perfect it. Today, many of my projects no longer use DIP IC.

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