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Transistor 2N2222: todo lo que necesitas saber | Hardware libre

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Together with BC548, it is another most commonly used transistor. Therefore, if you like DIY and are a manufacturer, you will definitely need one of these devices at some point. In this case, PN2222 is a low-power silicon transistor designed for linear amplification and switching applications.

The reason for this demand is that in addition to being able to work at medium high frequencies, it is also good at amplifying small currents and small or medium voltages. This means it has a

And in

. Those who will know know that it is one of the transistors used in the construction of the BITX transceiver, or that it allowed the Norcal ham radio club in 1999 to launch a challenge to construct a radio transceiver with only 22 transistors of this type without any Type of transistor. Attach IC.

Like BC548, it is manufactured using an epitaxial process. This is also a transistor

. At present, it usually has several possible packaging, such as plastic TO-92 (usually the most common packaging method) and other packaging (such as TO-18, SOT-23, SOT-223, etc.).


Such as

The reason for the name is that we discussed the device, so I want to give a very brief introduction to the concept and history of the transistor. A transistor is just a device similar to a switch and has the ability to amplify signals. In other words, they are substitutes for the original vacuum tubes or vacuum valves, which have caused many problems.

These valves are similar to traditional light bulbs, so they may burst and need to be replaced frequently. They are also large and do not allow the creation of small devices. The heat they generate is another problem. With the arrival

, which is

, Making the manufacture of this type of equipment cheaper, reduced and reliable.

The name of the transistor comes from

, Which is the transmission resistance in English. Remember, resistance is resistance. In addition, as you know, this invention appeared in Europe as the first patent of the physicist Lilienfeld (1925). It is advanced to some extent because they did not find any practical applications in that decade or the next, and it is still a field effect transistor, even more advanced than a bipolar transistor.

Oskar Heil also manufactured similar equipment in Germany in 1934. Later, Robert Pohl and Rudolf Hilsch will also conduct collaborations in a university in Germany. Experiments related to this equipment. Almost parallel, in the United States

They also did not conduct successful experiments until the fate of the Second World War changed. When they returned from the European battlefield, they proposed the idea of ​​"reorganization" and proposed a solution.

They obtained the first transistor patent in history and won the Nobel Prize, thereby gaining recognition. In 1948, they invented the contact transistor, which is a very large, very awkward and impractical device. It is expensive to manufacture, sometimes fails and must be relocated in some cases. From then on, they will evolve into current transistors.

But if you want to know

It is this device

This is a GIF with a metaphor of a transistor and a hydraulic system, I think you will find a better example than this one to capture how the transistor works:

It can be seen that when current is supplied to the base of the NPN transistor, the current flows from the collector to the emitter. But it does zoom in because if you look at the image, the water flow from the base and collector is added. Is an

Very simple, although you should replace water with electrons in electronic systems...

If you want to see a more enlightening image from the operational point of view of the semiconductor area, namely

, Here you have another picture:

As you can see in the image, when a negative voltage is applied to the emitter, it will push negative charge carriers (electrons), while at the bottom it will "absorb" positive charge carriers (holes)



This will be similar, but change the polarization or the way the transistor is connected.

2N2222 or PN2222 often

, Although we can also find other manufacturers, such as Fairchild Semiconductor, Siemens, COMSET Semiconductor, SEMICOA, etc. with a long history. is having a


2N2222A is

Due to its robustness, acceptable temperature range and other characteristics, and qualified for military applications (MIL-STD). If we look at the data sheets provided by these structures, the characteristics we will find in this transistor are:

A kind

, Usually a PDF, which contains detailed features of the electronic device. They are created by manufacturers with their own product characteristics. Therefore, we can find that the two data sheets of 2n2222 from different manufacturers do not have the same parameters. Here you can download some of them:

This guide applies to 2N222 or PN2222.

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