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To Ferrule Or Not To Ferrule? | Hackaday

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We recently posted about

 Fortunately, it was discovered and extinguished before spreading to the hacker’s home or hurting his family. By analyzing the residue of the printer, the hacker determined that the fire was caused by the loose grub screw that dropped the heater box of the extruder and touched the ABS fan shroud. It went all out and caught fire.

Many of us have similar 3D printers, so the comments in this article are vivid, but understandable.

 By listing many best wiring methods, including the use of ferrules. In particular, many 3D printers connect the heating bed to the motherboard through screw terminals, and the heating bed consumes a lot of current. Although it is not the cause of the original fire, the molten terminal block is a common complaint in many DIY 3D printer kits. One of the reasons is that simply stuffing thick stranded wires into the screw terminals and hoping for the best results may lead to increased resistance And heat, in the joints. In this case, the absolutely correct approach is to compress the ferrule. So let's talk.

So, what is a ferrule? Generally, any type of strap or clamp used to fix, reinforce or fix objects to each other. This is a broad definition that covers everything from small shoes used to fasten the ends of shoelaces to preventing looseness, to strong metal clips used to connect steel cords together. However, in the field of electrical wiring, compared with the sealing gasket for purely mechanical applications, the sealing gasket has a more specific definition and its purpose is also very different.

The wire gland is a soft metal tube that is crimped to the end of the stranded wire to improve the connection characteristics of the wire. Most gaskets are made of copper, usually tin plated. The size of the ferrule is suitable for a specific specification of wire, whether it is diameter or length. However, the ferrule is not just a simple cylinder, it forms a lip or trumpet at one end, which can be used to collect and consolidate the strands of the wire and insert them into the ferrule.

The flare in most ferrules is not immediately visible because it is usually wrapped in a tapered plastic cable entry sleeve. The sleeve acts as a transition between the wire insulation and the ferrule itself, and also serves to tie all these loose bonds into the inner cavity of the ferrule. Unlike more traditional crimp connections, the plastic sleeve of the ferrule is not compressed during installation. It remains intact around the insulation and provides some degree of strain relief by moving the bend radius of the wire away from the end of the insulation after installation. The colors of most ferrule sleeves are marked with wire dimensions in accordance with DIN 46228. For the same cross-sectional area (in square millimeters), the sleeve has two confusing codes in French and German.

If it sounds like a metal ferrule is more like something European than something American, that's for good reason. In order to obtain CE certification, electrical equipment must be terminated with wires twisted into screw or spring terminals with ferrules. The United States does not have such regulations, so it is not common to use gaskets in American equipment. However, sealing gaskets have specific advantages that are hard to deny and are widely used due to their good engineering significance.

To understand its principle, please clamp a short piece of insulated stranded wire of any specification. Stranded wire is flexible, which is one of the reasons for vibration in mobile applications, rather than solid wire. However, because the insulating layer wraps the conductor's twisted wires, keeps them in close contact, and maintains the twisting or twisting of the separate twisted wires, it is still somewhat stiff. Now peel off a little insulation from one end. You will notice that in most cases the laying of the twisted wires is at least partially disturbed-they are slightly twisted. Strip more insulation, making the strands more and more separated. After stripping off all the insulating layers, the conductor will lose all structural integrity and split into multiple strands.

This is the basic problem that the bushing is trying to solve: after stripping the wire, they will maintain the tight bond of the stranded wire in the conductor and allow the connection to conduct its full rated current. If there is no ferrule, the bare strands compressed in the screw terminal tend to splay, thereby reducing the number of single strands that are firmly in contact with the terminal. The resistance of this type of terminal is much higher than that of a proper bushing connection.

However, the advantage of metal connections is not just to reduce resistance. Like other

, The strands inside the ferrule that are correctly applied will bear huge pressure, and will stretch axially and deform radially in the process. Stretching tends to destroy and replace surface oxidation on the strands, while radial compression tends to remove the voids between strands. These tend to make crimped connectors have better oxidation resistance than uncrimped wires, thereby extending the life of the connection.

So, is the sealing gasket the only way for family players? Overall, I would say yes. Ferrules have obvious advantages over ordinary stranded wires. In high-current applications, I will insist on using them with screw terminals or wherever it helps to reduce stress into the shield. In addition, they provide a clean, professional look to the project, so even if the application is not a critical application, I tend to include them in my multi-strand wire connections. Of course, it is not without the cost of repair tools, but if you can buy a kit with various protective sleeves and suitable ratchet crimping tools for $30, it is not bad.

Thanks to [NobodyInParticular] for proposing this story.

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Stranded wire is flexible, which is one of the reasons for vibration in mobile applications, rather than solid wire. "

And it can still be broken, it just takes longer. I believe it is also a softer copper.

Was there no link to your talk about organ wiring and using ferrules a few weeks ago? The video got me into trouble, and now I love them.

Can you provide some good suggestions for the tool?

Phoenix Contact is an excellent tool, including magazines (such as guns) pre-loaded with ferrules of various sizes that can be slid into the tool.

I checked and they are $900.00

Used Weidmuller PZ 4 can usually be purchased on eBay for around $30. High-quality tools with replaceable molds. Their wire diameter ranges from 12 to 21 AWG.

For most connectors, cheap crimping tools from china/ebay will provide you with excellent service.

– For Ferullas, a simple 4-prong is enough (technically 6-prong is better, but with 4-prong you will get a nice square shape, which allows you to insert a slightly larger wire into the PCB screw terminal) in AC installation It is better to use 6 jaws.

– Then, for the blade connector, get a kit with interchangeable jaws, such as Paron in China, you will get a crimping pliers with 4 jaws and a thin wire stripper in a good bag

– JST connectors – especially the small pitch connectors are a story in themselves, you need a narrow tool to do any suitable processing on them, such as Engineer 09 or JST's appropriate connectors, but their price is ($400 or more) )

-IDC (Insulation Displacement Connector) can be easily completed without tools. But you can get simple pliers with 2 flat surfaces to simplify the tool.

-The prices of most famous brand connector manufacturing tools are sky-high, but some tools are specially designed for connectors and are more affordable (TE Connectivity)

– When you do semi-serial production, if there are more than 50 parts, you also need to consider dirty cables, which is a service provided by dirty PCBs

And more explanation about popular connectors on this link

Always consider the type of material when designing the connection system (gold is not always the most suitable), and the voltage generated between the two metals may make the joint unsuitable for long-term installation

If you want to understand the basic principle of connector crimping, please check the hackaday article about it

Spoiler crimping = cold welding

If you want to really understand the details, then Wurth elektronik will provide a very good book

One thing to remember, don’t solder crimped connectors

Advantages: If you master all the above conditions, you can find a job in any major industry without any problems, and the correctly crimped connector also has a certain aesthetic

Knipex Ref 97 72180 pliers. I paid about 25 euros and used them to crimp about 300 cable ends. Next week I will spend a lot of time rewiring electronic devices in CNC routers. However, do not buy the cheapest gaskets, but buy brand gaskets (such as Schneider).

The pressmaster MCT frame and the correct plug-in stuff (mold). The frame is about $70, and the mold is $50 (given or accepted). By reading eevblog and trying, this is the best thing I have found. It can indeed use molex kk connectors and various other products, just purchase the appropriate mold inserts. Pressmaster has many sales names, so you can find it through photos, and then check the other names listed under it for you.

That is the framework (MCT series) I am referring to. Fei

Sorry, there is another link:

That's where its rebranding took place. Wiha has nothing to do with this, but the mark is big! It is best to avoid this; get any name you can find on that MCT that can save money. The molds are all the same, there is no brand on it, only the news director (as far as I can see; I have about 3 or 4 molds, which can meet all my needs).

The one I use at home is much cheaper, but it seems to be the same product sold by ferrulesdirect.com (the vendor we use where I work).

Be careful to use tools, especially crimping pliers. The low-resolution photos on your computer seem to be exactly the same, which may mean that these molds are crucial between the Amazon version and the molds sold by a well-known supplier. The mold is the most important part: if the mold is not properly designed and manufactured, you will not be able to rely on the quality of the crimping 100%, and you will not be able to achieve all the purposes of using ferrules.

If you don't want to carry many tools with you, Unior 514 and gedore 8133 are very suitable for fast crimping. In the workshop, it is best to have special tools. At work, we have gedore and knipex, which have performed well in the past 7 years.

What about the ends of tinned stranded wires? How does it compare to ferrules? It also eliminates oxidation and eliminates voids around the steel strands.

I have always known that this is not a good idea, because relatively speaking, solder actually has a high electrical resistance.

It can work, but no mechanical strain relief is the most important thing. I have seen too many tinned wire ends, and they break easily at the transition between the tinned part and the non-tinned part.

To make matters worse, the end of the solder plating provides stress points, making it easier to break

To make matters worse, the solder is malleable instead of elastic, so even if the screw is tightened, any mechanical deformation will cause the connection to become loose at the microscopic level.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Technical Standards

Crimping, interconnecting cables, wiring harnesses and wiring

If I remember correctly, it will make the wire at the end of the solder more likely to break. As a result, you will get a nice and firm pen tip, but the wire will disconnect more quickly.

Yes, the solder will wick the core wire into the insulating part and become a weak point of fatigue.

The NASA soldering bible that appeared here a few months ago clearly stated that before the wire is insulated, the solder should not be wicked to around 1-2 mm. When the wire needs to be connected to the mowing, all you have to do is to use the Litze wire (just cheaper, not the individually insulated stranded wire type), because it is made up of hundreds of thin wires. Then, your wire is flexible enough and will not break.

By definition, Litz wire is a bundle of individually insulated wires. There is no "cheap version" without insulated wire, because it defeats the purpose of litz wire. You only need high strand count or "super flexible" wires. However, it has not done much for the weaknesses caused by welding.

In any case, this is not even the reason you should not solder wires in screw terminals. If so, as long as the wire is not bent or vibrated near the terminal. The problem is that solder can easily creep ("cold flow"). Over time, it deforms, the joint loses compression, then the connection loosens, everything that follows.

"When wires need to be connected to the mowing, what do you do..."

I didn't realize that NASA was involved in harvesting hay or mowing!

B ^)

not good. It creates a weak point immediately after the flux mass, and bending the cable too much can damage the cable at this precise point. Even if the cable is pulled by force, the sleeve (ferrule) with the plastic end is easier on the cable.

Do not tin-plat the ends of wires screwed into screw terminals.

Tin is not really solid, but it will deform over time. Therefore, connections that are tightened during installation will loosen over time.

Loose connection -> higher resistance -> higher temperature -> lower tin content -> looser connection...

You know what's going on ;)

In addition, tin will flow into the insulation and form hard spots far away from the terminal-if you are unlucky, this is where the single-stranded wire begins to break, causing invisible defects.

In addition to tin or traditional tin + lead mixtures that are too soft, the main problem is that tin will flow away from the screw "cold" due to thermal cycling and stress, and sooner or later will cause considerable contact resistance.

I heard that the third reason some people oppose soldering is that the solder is too soft and the screw connection will loosen over time.

Cold flow under pressure is the same reason that old aluminum power cords are so dangerous. Over time, the connection becomes loose, the resistance rises, and a poor connection can cause an arc.

I never like to find it on the spot. The solder is hard and smooth, so the terminal cannot be compressed and fixed on it like soft copper stranded wire. The ferrule crimping pliers make the serrations into a coil, so its grip is much better than solder.

High current is not helpful. The solder softens due to heating, and then the entire wire ends collapse.

Soldering is not a good idea. The solder will crack due to physical stress.

Tinned wires for screw terminals are a bad idea, because even at room temperature, the solder will shift slightly under pressure, and as the temperature cycles, the solder will flow out of the joint, thereby reducing the contact area and increasing The resistance is reduced, which generates heat, which leads to the positive feedback effect.

Compared with bare copper, tin plating is softer.

Therefore, the screws may be lost over time, faster than using ferrules or lugs.

I know that in Europe, stranded tin wire is usually used for tinning before many equipment fails or burns down. Now, crimping has become a problem.

Causes stress relief problems...usually it breaks completely at the end of the solder because it allows very sharp bends (solder wires are hard, non-solder wires are not...).

Tinning the ends of the stranded wires will make the parts of the wires after tinning brittle.

I never recommend soldering wires. Especially if there is vibration or even movement, your cable will break after a short time.

In the field, at a critical juncture, when there is no ferrule available, the current is lower, I know to fold the multi-strand wire back and push the entire batch into the cage screw terminal. This relieves the stress and prevents any stray whiskers. It has been proved to be successful for many years, but the contact area will be reduced, so it is not suitable for high current situations. The system was also unsuccessful on cored cables sold, sometimes resulting in intermittent connections.

Wow. Many replies (all said no), and many disagreements about the reasons.

Therefore, I will invest two cents.

do not.

The previous reasons apply, but there are other reasons. Except where the stress rises (the solder transitions to the stranded wire and cold flow) (the inherent resistance of the soldering end is lower than that of the base wire, but the contact resistance area is appropriate and the inability to maintain the pressure will cause heat), other important factors include some help The potential corrosive effects of flux, changes in the mechanical properties of the solder, and the diffusion alloy interface between the solder and copper due to initial crushing (which may include cracks), and the loss of fluidity and ductility due to flow. The firmness of the tin-plated end ( Compared to round solid wire or stranded wire...I can’t think of a better wording), and the potential long-term effects due to the environment (chemical) may be due to the different materials at the solder boundary and the cold working under the screw Physical/structural changes.

Now, the interesting thing is that you can properly use the old school welded in brass grommet and you may get 100 years or more of service. However, good luck found a source today, and the labor involved in installing these resources correctly is not worth it.

At the school I attended, the "old school" people did not use simple nicknames to instruct us: Before applying solder, the connection should be firmly fixed both electrically and mechanically, and the solder should not be relied on to carry current. Your proposal failed in three ways. The fourth point is unreliable, because simple tasks can be done at any time during the 100 years of the hyperbola.

The solder tends to flow away from the pressure point, causing the joint to loosen.

Therefore, welding before crimping or inserting crimp terminals is expressly prohibited in the Australian Wiring Rules.

In addition to the higher electrical resistance and the increased possibility of breakage at the ends of the tin-plated part, there is also a problem that the solder deforms over time under stress. Tin/lead has strange properties and can creep at any temperature. (See also No. 9 "L Delay" Pencil Detonator. A good force connection at the beginning may cause loose contact for a period of time, resulting in increased resistance and overheating. I have seen some reports that concluded that in reality The terminal is better than tinning because it is less likely to accidentally lose contact.

The solder is very soft, so over time it will deform and loosen the connection. Then, the solder surface will oxidize to form an insulating coating. Thermal cycling alone is sufficient to cause the connection to loosen fairly quickly.

Up to the end of the solder, the wire becomes very hard, causing stress points.

If anyone wants to know, you can buy a Knipex ferrule crimping machine for $30. They sell for more than $200.

I actually scrolled down to say this. I use a Knipex ferrule crimping machine worth $300. I have seen a company suing a contractor because they must re-terminate every connection in the 300 I/O point line because their new electrician brought cheap crimping tools instead of providing him with industrial-grade equipment. I also saw people using cheap wire tags and being sued. These cheap paper labels will turn white and lose ink due to the heat inside the panel. Three months after delivery, a panel of the customer was opened, and each wire label turned white. If you decide to crimp, please use a good quality crimp or bare wire. The $30 crimp tool is a nightmare proposal that will introduce points of failure at every connection in the project. Intermittent wiring failures are painful.

I *** those are called.

I saw them in the dismantled commercial EVSE, but never thought about whether they can be reasonably added to my home equipment. Well, I keep stuffing the twisted wire in, hoping for the best.

You better believe that I will investigate this now...

A few years ago, an article was submitted to HAD, analyzing the "root cause" of the neighboring garage fire (fire in a system controlled by Arduino), and using some general product safety national standards for performance and construction requirements (IEC60335- x, IEC60950-1, IEC61010-1 and IEC60079-x) to demonstrate various problems of faulty systems. cricket. Occasionally, some comments are posted in some HAD projects. Among these examples are amazing examples of fire and electric shock hazards. From Ennuy to hostility, my response to my comments varies. Other comments were obviously censored. To its credit, it seems unlikely that current HAD writers and editors will review and ignore comments and articles with a lot of safety engineering, EMC, and regulatory content. But that ship has already sailed, so the start of the "maker" community is quite difficult.

In any case, the real danger is that if people continue to do stupid things, the state and city governments will find a way to incorporate some interesting pastimes into criminal activities.

"In any case, the real danger is that if people continue to do stupid things, the state and city governments will find a way to incorporate some interesting pastimes into criminal activities."

Or just like many other things, increase the cost of our hobby. If there is a half chance, people will race to the bottom. If it is not the government, it will depend on insurance.

+ infinity As someone with 27 years of professional experience in the electronics manufacturing industry, I can attest that I am surprised by some concepts used (or widely accepted) in the DIY/manufacturer field. All the claims about 3D printer fires from cheap eBay or Chinese toolkits only got one response from me: well, um...

The "you pay" motto applies directly, but due to the declining prices (and proportional quality) in China, many people are starting to cater to/shaping them, and they seem to just care until it's too late.

Don't get me wrong, I will hack/bargain during off-hours. I like to spend less money on my projects, but there are some things I don’t want to sacrifice quality/safety for expenses, even for a project.

The ends of the shoelaces are fixed with small spikes. Yes, there is a name.

Moreover, you will never forget it!

I must check.


I have been using these times in my industrial automation life. A large sealing washer tip and a pair of nice shoe crimping pliers (they can compress the tip in four directions at the same time! It's amazing!), your engineer will be very happy.

All terminals are also screwless push-down type, which is very useful.

When you have beautiful BIG electronic cabinets, they are great.

Alas, all the products I make today are on a 0.1 inch pitch and there are no suitable terminals for holes or ferrules.

Does anyone see a push-down (no screw) terminal design that can be inserted into a single row of 0.1-inch spacing holes?

(For example, almost all Arduino, Wemos, shield boards and breakout boards on the market)

I will buy one thousand with heart.

Inquire and serve you: 0.1 inch screwless terminal block set for your next arduino shielding project:

As Josh said, they *are* 0.1 inches, but unfortunately require two rows of holes.

(Maybe for mechanical reasons?)

I should try them to see if they combine well enough with just one line, I'm not sure.

I made a lot of screw terminals in the products I made, no, you can't get decent screw terminals with 2.54mm pitch. I use blocks designed for 3.5mm or 5mm pitch. I use 2 and 3 terminal blocks, which are designed to be cascaded by sliding them together, so you can set them to any number greater than 2 if needed.

I did a quick search on Digikey and found the "Terminal Blocks – Wire to Board" category and restricted it to 0.1" and showed many results.

That said, the ones I thought about have two rows of connections because they are a little deeper, but you can easily use the prototype shield and put it on top of it without connecting to the second row of pins.

It appears that Molex and Tyco Electric both have spring release connectors with a pitch of 0.1, but have double-row connections.

Phoenix's screw terminal block is 0.1 inches and is a single row.

+1 makes my life easier and makes myself happy. Ferrule!

Searched on Mouser:

What are the benefits of changing from a 4-side ferrule crimper to a 5 or higher profile version? It seems that the professional version has 6 sides.

Square crimped gaskets are very suitable for square holes.

Hexagonal crimped sealing gaskets are more suitable for installation in round holes, and can also be installed in square holes.

The choice depends on your screw terminals/terminals.

Whenever I want to make sure the connection is strong, I use a sealing gasket, and I know it can carry a lot of current. In addition, the advantage of using a sealing gasket is that over time, you will not get the same contact pressure loss as using a multi-stranded wire, and crimping can solve this problem.

Differential contact pressure is a well-known failure condition that is not unheard of when it causes an electrical fire.

What I want to say is that various sealing gaskets for standard power cord sizes and a pair of crimping pliers suitable for them are a worthwhile investment in terms of safety.

Only worth my $ .02.

Make the 3d printer safe again! Correctly select and press the connector.

It depends on the situation. It is good, but there are many problems when using them in screw terminal blocks. The slider cannot go deep into the wire to maintain proper position because it cannot sufficiently squeeze the ferrule, so it is usually easy to pull it out of the slider.

See where the crimping machine deposits traces.

In my experience, if the wire is placed facing the screw/pressure point, the grip will be better.

In professional environments, ferrules are always used when connecting stranded wires. Make the connection method safer and easier to implement.

Forgot to say that this works at least for larger wires> 0.5mm^2

In the European Union, stranded wires with line voltage and screw terminals-ferrules must be used.

The ferrule crimping machine can also be used for other purposes. Cut a small piece of soft metal tube, insert two wires into it, one at each end, and then crimp it with a ferrule tool. Now, the joints you get are much more mechanical than welding two wires together. This is a good way to connect wires to axial resistors for use as heating elements or thermal fuse. I prefer this method to the current standard heating element method, because the leads will not fall out if they extend from both ends. If a commercially produced printer is constructed in this way, the cited fire is unlikely to occur.

Crimping joints in these parts and places here. Using a small amount of solder on the non-insulating type and the replaceable/heat shrinkable type can improve safety and reliability. You can also "tinning" the wires yourself when using tightening pieces and snap-in strips. Guard strips with lock washers also help. Hot/cold expansion and harsh environments require special attention. Inexpensive ultra-small wiring is an unfavorable environment.

Too many cheap crimping tools are common. If you do not have at least one tooth, your bite is not hard enough and you will be bitten soon.

Tinning wires to insert screw terminals is a bad idea. The cold solder flows, lead oxide is formed quickly at the junction, and the thermal cycle causes the connection to loosen due to the difference in thermal expansion between the solder and the copper/copper alloy...

There is a lot of good information online, and it is forbidden to weld the crimp connection before or after the crimp.

Just don't do it.

After crimping, the welding work is good for me. Don't try before crimping, and don't know why it makes sense. Screw-in plugs and exposed untinned copper wires have been troublesome. Therefore, seal gaskets are used, but the same rules as instructed must be followed. The exception always applies. It's like using any method incorrectly, including ferrule terminators, any form of crimping, poor welding, cheap crimping, improper torque drop, etc.

There are many contradictions and contradictions on the Internet. I will stick to the experience of combining good mechanical and chemical connections, unless otherwise specified and "common sense" by the manufacturer.

If crimped correctly, there is nowhere to put solder. Ideally, there are no gaps between the strands. This is the so-called "air-tight" connection.

The problem with soldering after crimping may be that it wicks the wires, making them hard and forming sharp bends. In addition, if the crimp connection has an insulating support, the solder connection will melt the insulation, thereby removing the insulating support.

If you can only crimp the wire part, please solder so that the solder is only pressed to the crimping area at the end of the wire on about half of the wire, and then crimp the insulating support, which has an advantage in sealing the crimping area to prevent corrosion. I hope that most people do not need this kind of thing in their projects, nor do they need a crimping machine to perform these two stages of crimping.

Sometimes it is difficult for me to find this kind of information on the Internet. When people read these large paper objects (called BOOKS) and kept them in large buildings called LIBRARIES, I learned a lot. fool

Speaking of airtightness, you should see how far I tighten the screws when replacing or adding a house exit. I will never burn the socket due to a loose connection.

chuckle. Well, I myself don’t want to use push-in switches on the wall socket. FWIW I also check circuit breakers and power supplies, especially if I know they are aluminum. Every few years or so. Modern families tend to use push-in distribution hotlines on switches. The cheap switch broke the five-year mark, and the poor soul eventually paid the electrician for the 50-cent equipment.

"In order to obtain CE certification, electrical equipment must be terminated with wires twisted into screw or spring terminals with ferrules."

Well-if I am wrong, someone can correct me, but I will question this. If the product complies with any of the more than 20 related directives and meets the "basic requirements" of these directives, the CE mark is applied to the product. There are other directives that can test products, such as safety, but CE marking is not technically necessary. I can't see where the wire termination will be mentioned in the CE directive.

(Source: Me. Going through the whole sorry thing.)

"The CE mark applies to any one of more than 20 related directives and meets the "basic requirements" of these directives. There are other directives that can test products, such as safety, but the CE mark is not technically necessary . I can’t see where wire terminations will be mentioned in the CE Directive.”

Generally correct. Give the person a cigar. Specifically, the "CE" mark is only applicable to the scope of products restricted by the marking directive. Most instructions are not marked instructions. The CE mark only means that the manufacturer or supplier has proved that the product has the basis for presumed compliance with the directives and standards within the scope; it does not mean that it has obtained any certification from a third-party laboratory or national agency.

The requirements for wire termination are not found in the directive, but will be found in product safety standards and building codes (BS7671, IEC60364, etc.) applicable to end-use equipment or components; the same is true in North America. Generally, safety standards will require two fixing methods for mechanical connection methods for hazardous voltages. Aru will meet these requirements after proper evaluation and evaluation.

Klauke is another (German) company that provides excellent crimping tools.

I think one of my questions is, when is it really inappropriate to use ferrules? A simple method is single core wire.

What about soldering multi-core wires to the board or label?

When using multi-core cables with compression connectors such as Wago levers-or does the same logic that apply to screw terminals apply to Wago lever connectors?

Wago terminals are difficult to use with loose stranded wires, they are not designed for this, so don’t be surprised...

In addition, the amount of compression of the stranded wire will be much greater than that of the solid wire, so it is likely that it is not tight enough and falls out. Sometimes the position of a single stock that falls out is also not fun:(

Make the multi-stranded wire of a given specification have the same cross-section as the solid wire of that specification. Therefore, you will often find wire strippers marked with two gauges on each hole. The smaller wire gauge (larger number) is used for solid wires, and the larger wire gauge (smaller number) is used for solid wires.

Therefore, if you use 18 gauge twisted wire and compress it in the ferrule, its compression will not be less than 18 gauge solid wire. In fact, between the ferrule itself, the shape of the crimping and some compression of the wire, it should be as close to the same size as possible so as not to make any difference.

Anyway, that is my WAG.

> wago terminal block is not suitable for loose stranded wire, it is not designed for it,

Oh, oh.

Movable Wago (old design):

Movable Wago (new design):

These are used for stranded wires.

>I think one of my questions is, when is it really inappropriate to use ferrules?

No ferrules are required for any spring-loaded terminals. example:

And all recent circuit breakers and switches are equipped with screw terminals, the screws pull the metal out

Contact from behind the wire.


A close-up shot (it is a simple screw terminal):

The screw cannot be pushed directly onto the wire, nor can the metal lip be pushed.

Instead, pull out a metal arc/semicircle from the back*.

These do not require ferrules. Hope to help you.

Moreover, this is very important when making hundreds of cable end sleeves.

Cut, twist and end in a set of pliers.

Can we ask for some legislation that bans the attackers of these high-volume magazines, no one would think of children.

I thought that the price was enough to get it out of the control of the elite.

B ^)

For professional tools, the price is actually surprisingly good. However, as an amateur, 240 euros is a bit high for my taste

If the wire is placed under the screw terminal, why should it be stopped halfway with a ferrule, and why not crimp it on the ring terminal? The ring terminal provides all the functions provided by the ferrule and the additional benefit of a flat surface against which the entire underside of the screw head can rest.

I have seen and used gaskets with "European" style bumper strips in industrial environments. This type of strip is not compatible with ring terminals.

The tool I use is the 4-sided WAGO Variocrimp 4 206-204, about $200. good performance.

Those Euro stripes are great and safer than walnut.

No one pointed out that these two pictures came from a company that manufactures many crimping tools. I was surprised.

If you read this article in the wrong way, it seems a bit like sponsored content. ;-)

Subject: Now, I finally have a comprehensive selection of information to understand why the screw terminal does not insert the word "Litze", thank you.

I use "Litze" because all twisted wires are Litze. The light yarn with isolated chains is "HF-Litze" ("High Frequency Light Yarn")-at least I come from. This caused some confusion because the English "Leeds Wire Transfer" is not the German "Leeds", but a specific type of Leeds...

Yes, the way you read the article is wrong. We do not sponsor content. I just took a relevant graphic to illustrate this point, and make sure that the source is correctly identified so that you can judge its suitability for yourself.

I have worked in maintenance, and currently work in engineering design for an American manufacturer. If any type of industrial instrument or automation equipment is involved, it is possible to use sealing gaskets. I have never seen a commercial device where only bare wires enter the junction box. This is just asking for trouble.

I got all the consumables from ferulesdirect.com, and we also buy from them while working. I have one of their 4-sided crimping pliers and it works very well, although you have to adjust it to make sure it is pressed tightly. We have many different companies working, and they all do very well.

I pressed a ferrule tightly and I like it!

One of the reasons I didn't mention the use of ferrules is that if you constantly insert or screw the wires into the screw terminals, you won't damage the solid wires. Otherwise, only a few insertion/removal cycles are required to disconnect the copper sheet.

I use it often. Cheap crimping tools from China are also more expensive professional tools. Visually, the quality of the results appears to be the same, although it is much better to use this expensive tool.

I bought a cheap (about £12) card sleeve crimping machine from eBay, and they seem to be well respected.

Another user I found is that you have two or more solid wires going into the back of the power socket of the ring main power supply. It is always difficult to securely fix multiple wires with one screw terminal. First crimp them with the ferrule.

It is different from the ferrule shown in the picture above, but yes.

Can the bare copper ends be thoroughly "tinned" so that the solder holds the strands together and fills the gaps between them as a substitute?

You should read all other reviews carefully, they are explained in detail here

Read the details above, but to summarize:



Just don't.

I want to know: When there is already a bit of metal between the screw terminal and the screw, do I need a ferrule? I like our fixtures like Wago, but recently I installed some Fibaro Z-Wave modules, the terminals of which look like Digi-Key part number 277-1667-ND. I don't want to use solid wires because I have to move the module around during installation, so I used several stranded wires and connected them with Wago 222-415 to the solid installation wires.

No sealing gaskets are used on both sides.

"I want to know: When there is already a bit of metal between the screw terminal and the screw, do you need a ferrule?"

One problem I encountered was that when the wires were bent, the sharp edges of the trapped metal washers would cut into strands and frayed. A suitable size ferrule or open end crimping ring terminal can move the bend up to the insulated part of the wire, and also prevent the stranded wire from being cut.

I am engaged in various large industrial equipment to make a living. I was bitten or stabbed by voltage and sucked blood on stray wires, which is more than I can count when troubleshooting and reworking old equipment. I hope to use the gasket that was popular in the United States about 40 years ago.

One of these flat blade crimp terminals is another cable end that I found, when multiple cables are terminated to a single terminal on a block (if you need to troubleshoot or perform maintenance on a regular basis, you need to remove one or more Cable), very useful.

I just bend them to different angles and can stack several into one terminal. Also suitable for single wires in high current terminal blocks because they are flat and can better contact with IMO

Using ferrules and welding heads: if the operation is correct, there is no difference! Ferrules have the same problems as soldering iron tips. The point where the ferrule meets the insulating layer may break. No problem with soldering iron head and screw terminal for 20 years

Please refer to the comments above to understand why soldering the stranded wire and then clamping it is a bad idea, it is not equivalent to a ferrule. Solder creep, corrosion, thermal expansion difference, etc.

Interestingly, inserting thick stranded wires into screw terminals and hoping for the best results will increase resistance and heat. It is best to use smaller wires to ensure safety. Maybe chopping might be the best option.

I attended this party very late, but I want to ask the experts questions. For car battery cables, many people are switching to multi-port terminals, such as KluKonceptz Ultimate Terminal or Stingers with Allen head squeeze ports. Is it wrong to crimp the ferrule on the 2 AWG main wire from the battery to the starter and from the battery to the engine ground? Or is it better to just fill the original wire with solder and insert it? Or... just insert the bare wire and crush it? TIA-Mike

Do you have a ferrule crimping tool that can handle 2 AWG? I doubt you can make a satisfactory crimp unless you use the right tools. I can't even imagine how many tools it would cost for a wire of this size!

Maybe you should seek advice from the manufacturers of these terminals you mentioned, and share with us after getting their answers.

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